Even before some Americans had finished with their Thanksgiving Day meals, people were lining up – some even camping – outside stores, ready to take advantage of Black Friday shopping deals. On Thursday, discount store Kmart opened its doors at 6 a.m., with other stores – including JCPenney, Best Buy and Target – open throughout the day. Shoppers at Macy's flagship store in New York City rushed the gates as the doors opened for pre-Black Friday sales late Thursday afternoon. Macy's said 16,000 people lined up before the store opened at 5 p.m. Many malls were opening late Thursday or in the predawn hours of Friday. Brian Motzko, an Iowa resident visiting Minnesota's Mall of America – the largest shopping mall in the U.S. – told the Associated Press the crowds at the giant shopping center appeared smaller than last year. Black Friday, the day after Thanksgiving, traditionally has started the holiday shopping season in the United States. It refers to the day when retailers turn a profit – going from "being in the red," or being in debt, to being "in the black," or making money. The National Retail Federation, a U.S. trade association, predicts holiday sales would increase 3.6 percent over last year, to $655.8 billion.